“To have” (“ha”) and “to be” (“vara”) – (Swedish-SV)

“To have” and “to be” are the bread and butter of a new language, and so it’s a good place to start when you’re looking at learning your first verbs. However, Swedish makes things very simplistic, as verbs do not change form for persons or numbers, meaning “I have”, “you have”, etc., use the same form of “have”, compared to German, for example, which would use “habe” for “I have”, and “hast” for “You have”.

You’ll also learn the Swedish personal pronouns here.

The infinitive of a verb is its “to” form, such as “to have”, “to play”, and is usually the form you use when talking about the verb as a concept. There are three grammatical “persons”: first, second, and third. Each of these persons has a singular form and a plural form, giving a total of six combinations. The first person contains the speaker, i.e. “I” in the singular, or “we” in the plural. The second person is the person you are addressing, i.e. “you” in the singular to one person, or to a group of people, that doesn’t include the speaker. The third person is neither the speaker nor the addressee; in the singular, it can be “he”, “she”, or “it”, and in the plural “they”. It’s a good idea to get used to the terminology, if you’re not already familiar, for personal pronouns, so when you hear “second person plural” you know exactly what it refers to – plural “you”, in this case.

Pronouns
First person singular jag I
Second person singular du
Ni (formal)
you
Third person singular han
hon
den (common nouns)*
det (neuter nouns)*
he
she
it
First person plural vi we
Second person plural ni you
Third person plural de they

*Look out for the lesson on articles for more information about common and neuter nouns.


HA (“TO HAVE”)

jag har I have
du har you have
han/hon/den/det har he/she/it has
vi har we have
ni har you have
de har they have

VARA (“TO BE”)

jag är I am
du är you are
han/hon/den/det är he/she/it is
vi är we are
ni är you are
de är they are
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