You’ll also learn the Swedish personal pronouns here.
The infinitive of a verb is its “to” form, such as “to have”, “to play”, and is usually the form you use when talking about the verb as a concept. There are three grammatical “persons”: first, second, and third. Each of these persons has a singular form and a plural form, giving a total of six combinations. The first person contains the speaker, i.e. “I” in the singular, or “we” in the plural. The second person is the person you are addressing, i.e. “you” in the singular to one person, or to a group of people, that doesn’t include the speaker. The third person is neither the speaker nor the addressee; in the singular, it can be “he”, “she”, or “it”, and in the plural “they”. It’s a good idea to get used to the terminology, if you’re not already familiar, for personal pronouns, so when you hear “second person plural” you know exactly what it refers to – plural “you”, in this case.
|First person singular||jag||I|
|Second person singular||du
|Third person singular||han
den (common nouns)*
det (neuter nouns)*
|First person plural||vi||we|
|Second person plural||ni||you|
|Third person plural||de||they|
*Look out for the lesson on articles for more information about common and neuter nouns.
|jag har||I have|
|du har||you have|
|han/hon/den/det har||he/she/it has|
|vi har||we have|
|ni har||you have|
|de har||they have|
|jag är||I am|
|du är||you are|
|han/hon/den/det är||he/she/it is|
|vi är||we are|
|ni är||you are|
|de är||they are|