“To have” (“iméti”) and “to be” (“bíti”) – (Slovenian-SL)

“To have” and “to be” are the bread and butter of a new language, and so it’s a good place to start when you’re looking at learning your first verbs. You’ll also learn the personal pronouns here, and get accustomed to the idea of writing out verbs in their conjugations, i.e. the different forms the verb takes depending on the subject of the sentence.

The infinitive of a verb is its “to” form, such as “to have”, “to play”, and is usually the form you use when talking about the verb as a concept. There are three grammatical “persons”: first, second, and third. Each of these persons has a singular form and a plural form, giving a total of six combinations. The first person contains the speaker, i.e. “I” in the singular, or “we” in the plural. The second person is the person you are addressing, i.e. “you” in the singular to one person, or to a group of people, that doesn’t include the speaker. The third person is neither the speaker nor the addressee; in the singular, it can be “he”, “she”, or “it”, and in the plural “they”. It’s a good idea to get used to the terminology, if you’re not already familiar, for personal pronouns, so when you hear “second person plural” you know exactly what it refers to – plural “you”, in this case.

NOTE: Slovenian has an extra grammatical number, the dual. The pronouns essentially translate to “we two”, “you two” and “they two”. Verbs will take different forms in the dual from in the singular or plural.

Pronouns
First person singular jàz I
Second person singular
vî (formal)
you
Third person singular òn
óna
óno
he
she
it
First person dual mîdva (males)
mêdve (females)
we two
Second person dual vîdva (males)
vêdve (females)
you two
Third person dual ónadva (males)
ónidve (females/neuter)
they two
First person plural mî (males)
mê (females)
we
Second person plural vî (males)
vê (females)
you
Third person plural óni (males)
óne (females)
óna (neuter)
they

Slovenian often misses out personal pronouns i.e. “imám” (“I am) is equivalent to “jaz imám”.


IMÉTI (“TO HAVE”)

(jaz) imám I have
(tî) imáš you have
(òn/óna/óno) imá he/she/it has
(mîdva) imáva we have
(vîdva) imáta you have
(ónadva) imáta they have
(mî) imámo we have
(vî) imáte you have
(óni/óne/óna) imájo they have

BÍTI (“TO BE”)

(jaz) sèm I am
(tî) sì you are
(òn/óna/óno) jè he/she/it is
(mîdva) svà we two are
(vîdva) stà you two are
(ónadva) stà they two are
(mî) smò we are
(vî) stè you are
(óni/óne/óna) sò they are
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