African countries (Polish-PL)

AFRYKA
Algieria Angola Benin Botswana
Algeria Angola Benin Botswana

Burkina Faso Burundi Kamerun Republika Zielonego
Przylądka
Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde

Republika
Środkowoafrykańska
Czad Komory Wybrzeże Kości
Słoniowej
Central
African Republic
Chad Comoros Côte d’Ivoire

Dżibuti Demokratyczna
Republika Konga
Egipt Gwinea Równikowa
Djibouti Democratic Republic
of the Congo
Egypt Equatorial Guinea

Erytrea Etiopia Gabon Gambia
Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon The Gambia

Ghana Gwinea Gwinea-Bissau Kenia
Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya

Lesotho Liberia Libia Madagaskar
Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar

Malawi Mali Mauretania Mauritius
Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius

Maroko Mozambik Namibia Niger
Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger

Nigeria Kongo Rwanda Wyspy Świętego
Tomasza i Książęca
Nigeria Republic of the Congo Rwanda São Tomé
and Príncipe

Senegal Seszele Sierra Leone Somalia
Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia

Republika
Południowej Afryki
Sudan Południowej Sudan Suazi
South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland

Tanzania Togo Tunezia Uganda
Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda

Zambia Zimbabwe
Zambia Zimbabwe
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European countries (Polish-PL)

EUROPA
Albania Andora Austria Białoruś
Albania Andorra Austria Belarus

Belgia Bośnia i Hercegowina Bułgaria Chorwacja
Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia

Republika Czeska
(Czechy)
Dania Estonia Finlandia
Czech Republic (Czechia) Denmark Estonia Finland

Francja Niemcy Grecja Węgny
France Germany Greece Hungary

Islandia Irlandia Włochy Kosowo
Iceland Ireland Italy Kosovo

Łotwa Liechtenstein Litwa Luksemburg
Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg

Macedonia Malta Mołdawia Monako
Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco

Czarnogóra Holandia Norwegia Polska
Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland

Portugalia Rumunia Rosja San Marino
Portugal Romania Russia San Marino

Serbia Słowacja
(Republika Słowacka)
Słowenia Hiszpania
Serbia Slovakia
(Slovak Republic)
Slovenia Spain

Szwecja Szwajcaria Ziednoczone Królestwo Ukraina
Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom Ukraine

Watykan
Vatican City

Animals (Polish-PL)

ZWIERZĘTA
kot pes królik mysz
cat dog rabbit mouse

ptak kaczka sowa motyl
bird duck owl butterfly

krowy koza świnia owiec
cow goat pig sheep

koń kurczak ryba żaba
horse chicken fish frog

lew tygrys małpa wąż
lion tiger monkey snake

niedźwiedź słoń żyrafa wieloryb
bear elephant giraffe whale

mrówka pszczoła mucha pająk
ant bee fly spider

Days, Months, Seasons (Polish-PL)

DNI TYGODNIA (DAYS OF THE WEEK)

poniedziałek Monday
wtorek Tuesday
środa Wednesday
czwartek Thursday
piątek Friday
sobota Saturday
niedziela Sunday

MIESIĄCE (MONTHS)

styczeń January
luty February
marzec March
kwiecień April
maj May
czerwiec June
lipiec July
sierpień August
wrzesień September
październik October
listopad November
grudzień December

PORA ROKU (SEASONS)

spring summer autumn winter
wiosna lato jesień zima

“To have” (“mieć”) and “to be” (“być”) – (Polish-PL)

“To have” and “to be” are the bread and butter of a new language, and so it’s a good place to start when you’re looking at learning your first verbs. You’ll also learn the personal pronouns here, and get accustomed to the idea of writing out verbs in their conjugations, i.e. the different forms the verb takes depending on the subject of the sentence.

The infinitive of a verb is its “to” form, such as “to have”, “to play”, and is usually the form you use when talking about the verb as a concept. There are three grammatical “persons”: first, second, and third. Each of these persons has a singular form and a plural form, giving a total of six combinations. The first person contains the speaker, i.e. “I” in the singular, or “we” in the plural. The second person is the person you are addressing, i.e. “you” in the singular to one person, or to a group of people, that doesn’t include the speaker. The third person is neither the speaker nor the addressee; in the singular, it can be “he”, “she”, or “it”, and in the plural “they”. It’s a good idea to get used to the terminology, if you’re not already familiar, for personal pronouns, so when you hear “second person plural” you know exactly what it refers to – plural “you”, in this case.

Pronouns
First person singular ja I
Second person singular ty you
Third person singular on
ona
ono
he
she
it
First person plural my we
Second person plural wy you
Third person plural oni (group of males)
one (group of females)
they

Polish often misses out personal pronouns in the nominative case, i.e. “Jestem” (“I am) is equivalent to “Ja jestem”.


MIEĆ (“TO HAVE”)

(ja) mam I have
(ty) masz you have
(on/ona/ono) ma he/she/it has
(my) mamy we have
(wy) macie you have
(oni/one) mają they have

BYĆ (“TO BE”)

(ja) jestem I am
(ty) jesteś you are
(on/ona/ono) jest he/she/it is
(my) jesteśmy we are
(wy) jesteście you are
(oni/one) są they are

Announcement for Lesson 1

First of all, forgive me that the blog is currently still very empty! I spent much of the beginning of 2013 doing some tidying up and the technicalities of the pages you can see, setting up accounts for various things, etc., but when it came around to getting onto the actual content, my health issues meant I’ve not had much to work on the blog, and also another excuse from me is that the phonetics posts I’m working on are slower work than I had anticipated!

For that reason, I plan to begin on the lessons anyway, and just publish the phonetics posts more slowly as I complete them, so that there is actually some content in the site. Lesson 1 will comprise basic items of vocabulary for each language, such as useful phrases to give you some introduction to the language, so it will likely be quite brief. I will make a page here for lessons, where the content is split into each language, so it should be more easily navigable when there is a lot more information floating about the blog; hopefully the lessons will be released much faster after I’ve completed the coding for these navigation pages.

I hope the posts are understandable and enjoyable, and most importantly, helpful! Any suggestions and feedback welcome.